Making Cities Food Secure
As agricultural lands are fast shrinking, experts are advocating to encourage urban farming to deal with the problem of food security in urban areas. However, without the policy support, can it work?
Last month, Gurgaon hosted a two-day workshop in Gurgaon for farmers to promote Urban farming. The workshop discussed many interesting points including the peri-urban farming techniques consisting farming in vacant plots and small areas, including balconies. As India is building 100 smart cities, can our cities be self-sufficient in achieving food sustainability? The trend, with correct policy direction, can be a game changer to ensure food security in the urban areas.
The Figures Say It All
India occupies some 2.4 percent of world’s land area but we definitely carry world’s 17.7 percent population. To understand the urban occupancy and need of urban farming, we should go through some indicators of urbanization. The current urban population of India is an odd 439.80 million. Currently, 35-40 percent of our population is urban. This proportion is expected to increase to about 60 percent by 2025. By the year 2020 India will have a density of 465 people per square kilometers. Urban food security is becoming a matter of increasing concern and urban poverty is reflected in the nutritional status of the people. All the data makes a strong case for urban farming to meet the rising food demands of the urban population in India.
“Our objective is to ensure that farming is done in and around the cities as per the requirements of the urban consumers, and at the same time consumers should ensure that farmers get their due,” said Om Prakash Dhankar, the Agriculture Minister of Haryana on the need of promoting urban farming.
According to Sanjay, Sudan, MD of Saveer Biotech: “Urban agriculture has the potential to become a vibrant economic sector that quickly adapts to changing conditions and demands, intensifying its productivity and diversifying its functions for the city. Its future will depend on its contributions to the development of a sustainable and resilient city that is inclusive, food secure, productive and healthy, thus establishing food smart cities. The size can be judged by the rapid expansion of cities and peri-urban areas. Even for suburban areas, the figures are very bright. The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector in rural and semi-urban India is estimated to cross $ 100 billion by 2025”.
Good Practice Urban Agriculture
Globally many cities are adopting what is called Good Practice Urban Agriculture. A Good practice urban agriculture is effectively regulated agriculture to provide ‘safe food’ to the city dwellers. It includes farming, fishery, horticulture, forestry, poultry and livestock development. As a part of the model, land unsuitable for use as ‘built up’ space such as steep slopes, wetland, land cover, and aquifers can be utilized for urban agriculture. Further, ancillary spaces along highways, river banks, coastal zones under electric power lines, at airports and prisons, land around institutional buildings, peripheral areas around schools and parks, etc; are the areas where fruit trees and vegetables can be grown.
Indian urban agriculture is in a very nascent stage, however, it has a lot of potential. Urban farming can be a resource-conserving industry. It creates a diverse ecology where fruits, trees, vegetable plantations and fish could coexist within built environment – a wholly ecologically sustainable scenario. China is a very good example of ‘Good Practice Urban Agriculture’. During the mid of 1900, eight of the sixteen cities in the world with a population over 500,000 were in China. All of those cities have effectively regulated agriculture for over 100 years and it is a fact that today’s China is highly dependent on urban agriculture. India can learn a great deal from it, however, a systematic and focused study is needed to work in this direction.
Another initiative in this direction can be the rise of vertical farming. Vertical farming market size will cross $13 billion by the year 2024 according to a new research report by Global Market Insights, Inc. “Vertical farming market is relatively providing the impetus for growth in indoor farming sector due to the advent of LED lights and growth mechanism such as aeroponics, hydroponics etc. Low labor costs, location of vertical farms closer to consumer bases, accessibility to fresh produce, zero pesticides usage are the key market dynamics sprouting up the growth,” says Sudan.
The Multiple Advantages
It has the potential for providing much higher benefits in nutrition improvement, income generation, enterprise development, and land as well as waste management. Also, it will make the cities greener and most importantly, will help the cities in purifying the air and reducing the high pollution levels.